Can the Environmental Protection Bureau have a relationship with money (business with the Environmental Protection Bureau)
\”Contains mobile phone, change the ball for scissors!\”
This sentence is to take the streets and recycled old mobile phones in the township.
\”Realizing Carbon and can bring many new economic growth points, create more high-quality employment and entrepreneurial opportunities in low carbon fields, bringing multiple benefits such as economic competitiveness, social development, environmental protection
This sentence is the founder and CEO Zhang Lei held in China’s 2021 economic summit in China on March 20th.
These two sentences, a city well, a high hall, and the same things between them are \”environmental protection\”, and the difference is that the former can only exchange stainless steel basins, the latter may be exchanged in the future An electric vehicle.
Note: In the past, most of the recycling of old mobile phones, mostly \”brutal recycling\”, that is, simply extracting precious metals in which electronic components are melted, and will abandon it, although there is Value recycling, but at the same time cause secondary pollution, this recovery is not environmentally friendly.
Carbon and lithium battery
When the Spring Festival, when the stock market is crazy, the concept of \”carbon neutrality\” is against the trend, and the relevant sectors and stocks have continuously rising. condition. When the country once again emphasized the \”2030 carbon Dharma, 2060-year-old carbon neutralization\”, the capital market has fallen into a crazy point.
Note: Carbon is neutrally referring to the total amount of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas emissions directly or indirectly generated within a certain period of time, through the form of planting, energy saving and emission reduction. Cutting itself produced carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas emissions, achieving positive and negative offset, reaching relative \”zero emissions\”.
Of course, under the policy banner of \”carbon neutrality\”, the overall excitement of the market is normal; but cut \”carbon neutrality\” goals, you will find that in fact, in the relevant industry, There is a relationship with the same thing – lithium battery.
In the research report of Anxin Securities, four major sections worth long-term attention are mentioned. There are two sectors that are closely related to lithium batteries:
Clean energy: photovoltaic, wind power, energy storage , Biomass, new energy vehicle, smart grid, etc .;
New energy upstream raw materials: copper, new energy metal (lithium, nickel, cobalt), etc .;
Clean energy seems to be stored Can be associated with a new energy vehicle with a lithium battery, but in fact, the future power generation structure, the smart grid is required, and the new energy car cooperation can be achieved.
Simple Crisis; secondly, the physical structure of the grid is limited, so that the source of electrical energy similar to photovoltaic power generation is very zero.It is necessary to lay a large amount of transmission facilities in the grid.
(Figure / Volkswagen \”PowerDay\”)
, by the addition of energy storage facilities and new energy vehicles, first energy storage can be used as a power generation, and the electricity is buffered. Cheap electricity bills are stored, or small-scale, even household photovoltaic power factories, and then power itself or even nearby regions, reduce the average electricity bills or respond to electricity crisis; second electric vehicle lithium battery can be used as The fixed energy storage system is used, on the other hand, because it has the characteristics of mobility, \”transfer\” of electrical energy will no longer be limited by the power grid, and can play a lot of roles and economic value.
But this beautiful vision is subject to the output of lithium batteries, while the production of lithium batteries is significantly limited by \”new energy upstream raw materials\”.
The \”eloquent\” of the lithium battery \”
The history of the lithium battery is long, and it is short.
Lithium elements were discovered by Johan August Arfwedson in 1817, but until the 1991 merchant lithium battery is commented; the founder of this period is truly transformed into a lithium battery in this period. Scientists, they won the late \”Nobel Award\” in 2019. (For more information on \”200 years of battery evolutionary history\”)
Note: 2019 Nobel Chemical Award, awarded three \”a huge contribution to lithium batteries\”, John B. John B.Goodenough, M. Stanley Witterhan (M. Stanley Whittingham) and Jiji (Akira Yoshino). Trinity is not a common work research, but as a lithium battery, a lithium battery renovator and a lithium battery optimizer are drilled alone.
The Nobel Prize is \”late\”, more or less explains one thing. That is, although the lithium battery has a lot of adoption in various types of digital products, tools, but truly causes the world to pay attention to, or some people will realize that the lithium battery will bring more changes, is the lithium battery in the electric vehicle industry. Rapid development.
Although the current electric vehicle sales and fuel cars can not be more than shoulders, the trend of the sales of electric vehicles has been set, which is not just by Tesla, which has verified the love of electric vehicles. More, there is more, traditional car companies have not yet opened the real-electric vehicle product sequence stage. At the current 2020, the global sales of electric vehicles were approximately more than 2 million, and it was very likely to climb to 26 million in 2040.
(Global Electric Vehicle Sales)
And whether the admission of traditional car companies is actually the relationship with consumers to the electrifact accepted; Because it is forced to \”Paris Treaty\” and eachUnder the fine of carbon emissions in the region, traditional car companies will also join the electric vehicle market.
(Main car companies 2018 actual carbon emissions, 2021 carbon emissions expectations, and carbon emissions required by 2021 free fines)
Production and sales in the electric vehicle industry The outbreak is inevitable, and the capacity pressure of lithium battery brought is also huge. According to research institutions survey and expectation, the demand for lithium battery in 2025 will reach nearly 800GWH, and the demand for lithium battery in 2030 will reach 2000GWH, and current global capacity is less than 400GWH.
(123] (demand for lithium battery)
The surge in surge is not only means that the battery manufacturers expand and accelerate production, but more means that the demand for more upstanding raw materials is sharply increased. . Although the battery manufacturer is spread all over the world, the production land of the upstream raw materials is limited to some areas, and the main number of raw materials minerals are mastered in a few companies; this will bring two very troublesome problems, supply chain Unstable and the price of raw materials is very fluent.
In fact, the fluctuations of prices are not meaningless to fluctuate in the cost of lithium batteries, and ultimately either the battery manufacturer \”to endure swallow\” less, or transfer to car companies. The cost of the vehicle has caused the profit margin to decline.
(Electric Vehicle compares the cost of various parts of the fuel car, wherein the battery and electric drive system of electric vehicles account for 51% of the cost of the vehicle)
The most important thing is Unstable supply chains will mean that battery manufacturers lose competitiveness, or facing huge economic losses; and for car companies, the importance of lithium batteries is even better than a black technology engine, if you can’t control Stable battery supply, lost markets is likely to mean \”new forces\” will become \”old history\”.
So, in essence, the supply of the upstream raw materials of the lithium battery before the new battery is invented, and is one of the key cores of the development of electric vehicles and the great goals of electric vehicles.
The ignored \”Mine\”
After 2018, the lithium battery equipped with electric vehicles will enter large-scale retirement, and it is necessary to estimate the waste lithium battery generated by each 1 million electric vehicles. It will produce \”garbage\” that reaches 250,000 tons and 500,000 cubic meters.
However, in fact, there is almost no raw material loss during use, but only \”degradation\” occurs due to internal physicochemical structures, which affects its full capacity and performance. That is to say, if these so-called \”garbage\” can be recycled, theoretically all raw materials can become new batteries.
International Market Research Institute Technavio issued a reportThe size of the global battery recovery market may increase by 5.77 billion US dollars during the period of 2020-2024. The report believes that although the global supply is sufficient, nearly 70% of the global lithium reserves are located in South American countries, and the unstable political bureaus of these countries will seriously affect the supply; in addition, other fields are also increased. So the sharp growth of lithium demand may promote the development of lithium battery recovery, and the compound annual growth rate of the global lithium battery recovery market will expect more than 9%.
Further, not only the problem of lithium, the two most common cathode metal cobalt and nickel also have very large recycled value.
(The proportion of materials in various batteries, Anode is the anode, Cathode is the cathode)
Of course, the recovery value is only on the one hand, and the number of these on the other hand is huge and Every year, the \”waste\” lithium battery not only has a huge fire, explosion risk, and a variety of materials, if leaks, it will cause difficult contamination, which is completely non-conventional lead-acid batteries.
The problem of the environment can even be traced back to the upstream mining extraction process.
For example, if you want to produce a ton of lithium, it means that 250 tons of lithium glow or 750 tons of lithium saline are required. The large number of raw materials needed during this production process will cause huge damage to the environment; It is also like extracted lithium from the rich saline, and it is necessary to remove a large amount of water into the lithium salt to puminate it. Production of 1 ton of lithium, about 1900 tons of water resources, and these water are not recycled, but evaporate. . In Chile Salar de Atacama, 65% of local water sources are all used in mining activities, causing local residents to go to other regions to find water to live.
If the same lithium produces the same lithium battery is used, only 28 tons of \”waste\” lithium batteries (about 250 electric vehicles) can be required.
There is also the problem of raw material origin mentioned above, just like the main origin of cobalt ore (50% yield of global production), its mining process not only involves a large number of non-environmental impact, and its local hires children’s labor production. Armed conflict, illegal mining is more likely to \”blood mine\” on the back of cobalt.
Simply, lithium battery recycling not only solves the unstable supply chain, but also solves a large amount of environmental pollution, as well as the above tragic human rights issues.
The lithium battery recycling industry with so many advantages, the development is slow, and the one is that the relevant technique is not mature, and the second is the economic benefit of the extension.
Gradually mature technology
The first big problem facing lithium battery is to be, the battery pack specification of the electric vehicle is not uniform. If you want to bulk a large-scale recycling, or reduce time cost, how to solve the rapid dismantling problem is the first step.
The process of conventional technologies, discharge, dismantling, etc. In addition, it is coupled to the short development time of the electric vehicle industry, and the number of related skilled workers is small, and further exacerbated this process is difficult, causing an increase in indirect costs.
So, the robot’s automated dismantling flow line is generated, and the robot arm cooperates with complex perception system. Through the AI \u200b\u200bsoftware drive, various batteries are identified and confirmed, and then discharge, decompose according to relevant processes. While reducing danger, it has greatly accelerated production speed.
This type of dismantling line is actually made by Apple, and a pipeline can dismantle 1.2 million Apple phones each year, and the dismantling can be accomplished for only 11 seconds. This production line can only be disassembled for iPhone6 \u200b\u200bdue to lack of technical restrictions and initial design considerations.
So, at this stage, the core difficulties and technological optimization of automated disassembly flow wire are now, in the AI \u200b\u200bsoftware part, that is, the learning characteristics of artificial intelligence, introduced them to accelerate their independent learning to understand various lithium batteries. How to dismantle, can gradually achieve high speed and efficient production processes.
Special explanation here, this solution is from bottom to, downstream needs to solve the upstream uncertainty of difficult to estimate; and the truly best solution is to create a battery at the beginning. When the system is time, consider the addition of various types of QR code, RFID tags, etc., it is convenient to quickly identify and operate the downstream recycling. In addition, more importantly, unifying the battery, battery pack specification, like Tesla, Volkswagen Group, considering the recovery link from the original design, which can greatly reduce the difficulty and cost of downstream.
The second problem facing lithium battery is facing, the chemical composition of various uncertain lithium batterys. Due to the rapid development of lithium batteries, plus electric vehicles for higher requirements for lithium battery performance, each battery manufacturer keeps the lithium battery material and formula, trying to improve its performance.
This causes time to recover lithium batteries, facing different types of lithium batteries, the recovery method requires extremely high compatibility, or can be \”unchanged should change\” recovery method response.
There are four types of recovery in use, respectively, Pyrometallurgical, Wet metallurgy, physical decomposition, direct recycling, each method has advantageous. For example, the way directly reclaimed only for lithium batteries of digital product types, while fire-based metallurgical and wet metallurgy applies only to lithium batteries (electric vehicles) worth high value.
In addition, although biodegradation methods are used in mining ore stages, but the recycling stageStop in the laboratory stage before, commercialized large-scale applications have not yet appeared. This method of recovery is that the required process is simple, and the secondary environment has a small impact, and the ratio of recovered lithium battery raw materials is very high.
So in cases in the case of commercial success, such as the upcoming Canadian company Li-Cycle, Redwood, one JB Straubel company), Northvolt, etc., all of the above Four recycled methods and improved techniques.
LI-CYCLE uses the iterative improvement on the basis of wet metallurgy, and their way does not need to discharge lithium batteries, and directly uniform pretreatment, in the case of ensuring safety, ignore A variety of different remaining electricity, battery specifications, and then distributed, direct output of the lithium battery plant can directly use the powder.
Note: The recycling technology published by the Major Group is very similar to the way li-cycle.
Redwood is used by fire-based metallurgical techniques to combine wet metallurgical technology, separating the metal in the battery by high temperature, but different from the traditional heating method, they use the remaining power in the battery as an energy source After outputting an alloy, it is separated by a wet metallurgy process. JB Straubel leak, which can recover 95% -98% nickel, cobalt, copper, aluminum, graphite, and more than 80% of lithium.
It can be said that although the lithium battery recovery industry is still in the preliminary stage, just as one of Tesla’s founders and CTO, JB Straubel suddenly leaves Testla, turned to start business Redwood; Many companies and research institutions have seen the prospect of the recycling of lithium batteries and are already large.
Many companies have been known as lithium batteries, such as Ningde Times, BRUNP, can recover 10 tons of lithium battery waste each year in Hunan Province, in Hunan Province.
Lithium battery recovery, whether it is considered for environmental protection, sustainable development, or battery manufacturers, vehicle enterprises to strengthen their own competitiveness, all Hili There is no harm.
Although most of the situation is always \”first pollution, re-governance\” in the history of the long river. But the root cause is still in the eyes, if the price of the lithium battery is directly produced below the price of recovery of lithium battery re-production, then other impacts and problems are not concerned.
However, the recycling of lithium batteries has formed a closed loop structure: carrying electric vehicles, secondary energy storage system utilized, recovered; and under \”carbon neutralization\” international goals, lithium battery recycling It is already an industry that is in short economic efficiency. On the one hand, on the one hand, it is the competitiveness and future of the guarantee.Supply demand, on the other hand, the industry itself has great profit margin.
(\”Waste\” management level, from top to bottom, multiplexing, recycling, repairing, discarding)
After all, environmentally friendly, the main body, the most original is also the most effectiveDriving force is economic benefits.